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  • Siti Zaidah Binti Abdullah

    January 31, 2022 at 11:18 pm

    Sampling is a way to choose a group of people or a small group of people from a group of people in order to make statistical conclusions and figure out the characteristics of the whole group. People who do market research use a lot of different sampling methods so they don’t have to do research on everyone in order to get actionable information. It is indeed a time-saving and cost-effective way to do research, so it is the foundation of any research plan. Sampling techniques can be used in a survey software to get the best results. Suppose a drug manufacturer wants to find out how a drug might hurt the country’s people. It’s almost impossible to do research that includes everyone. In this case, the researcher will select a group of people from every demographic and then study them to get an idea of how the drug will act. sampling is the process of getting a small group of people. Sampling is an important part of the research design because this method gives rise to both quantitative and qualitative data that can be used in a research study. Probability sampling and non-probability sampling are two different types of sampling methods.

    Probability sampling is a technique for obtaining a sample in which items are chosen from a population using probability theory. This strategy is inclusive of the whole population, and each individual has an equal opportunity of being selected. As a result, there is no bias in this sample. Following that, any member of the population may participate in the study. The screening process is established at the beginning of the research study and is an integral part of the research. Following is the four types of probability:

    1. Simple random sampling is indeed the easiest way to pick a group of people to be a representative. In this method, everyone has the same chance of being in the study. You can’t predict which objects in this population sample will be chosen. Each one has the same chance of being chosen. Suppose a school principal wants to get feedback from its students about how they like their teachers and level of education. All the 5000 students at the school could be a part of this sample group. At random, 500 students can be chosen from this group. They can all be part of the group.

    2. Cluster sampling is a method where the respondent population is split into equal groups. These clusters are found included within a sample based on setting certain demographic parameters. These could be things like age or location or sex. When a survey is made, it is very easy for the survey creator to make practical conclusions from the feedback. For example, if the Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia (KKM) wants to collect data about the adverse side effects of COVID-19 vaccination in Malaysia, they can divide the respondents according to the states in Malaysia. Respondents in these clusters are then asked to take part in research studies. This way of getting a sample makes the data collection more in-depth and gives you easy-to-read and actionable insights.

    3. Systematic sampling is a method of sampling where the researcher picks people at random from a group of people at the same time. Start at one point and choose people at a predetermined interval. People who want to be volunteers for the District Race Malaysia by AIA Vitality are on a list of 1000 people, and each one has a number from 1 to 1000. Then, if you start at 1 and pick each person at a 10-person interval, you can get a sample of 100 volunteers.

    4. Stratified random sampling is a technique used in the study design phase to divide the participant population into distinct yet pre-defined groups based on pre-defined factors. The responders in this approach do not overlap, but rather collectively reflect the whole population in this manner. In order to evaluate persons from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, a researcher could divide respondents into groups based on their yearly earnings. This divides the population into smaller groups or samples, and maybe some of the items from these samples may be employed in the research project.

    Non-probability sampling is when the researcher picks a group of people to study. This type of sample is mostly based on how easy it is for the researcher or statistician to get to this sample. This type of sampling is used in early research when the main goal is to come up with a hypothesis about the subject of the research. Here, each person doesn’t have the same chance of being in the sample population, and the parameters of the sample are only known after the sample has been chosen to be in. We can group non-probability sampling into four different types of samples as following:

    1. Convenience sampling refers to the ease with which a researcher may contact a respondent. This sample was not derived scientifically. Researchers have little control over the selection of sample items, which are chosen entirely on the basis of proximity, not representativeness. This non-probability sampling technique is utilized when gathering input is time- and cost-constrained. For instance, researchers conducted a mall-intercept survey to ascertain the likelihood of using a scent manufactured by a perfume maker. The sample respondents are picked solely on the basis of their proximity to the survey desk and their willingness to engage in the study using this sampling approach.

    2. Judgmental / Purposive sampling approach is a technique for constructing a sample solely on the basis of the researcher’s judgment and knowledge of the target population. This sampling strategy selects individuals who meet the study requirements and end goals and excludes those who do not. For instance, a research study is conducted to determine which flavors do consumers think will go along with cheesecakes. Hence, the researcher will ask questions such as “Do you consume cheesecakes?” Anyone responding “NO” to this question will be eliminated from the study.

    3. Snowball sampling is a non-probability sampling approach in which samples possess characteristics that are uncommon to find. This is a strategy for recruiting volunteers for a research project in which current subjects give recommendations. For instance, while gathering input on a sensitive subject such as AIDS, respondents are often reticent to provide information. In this instance, the researcher may recruit individuals who have an awareness or knowledge of such individuals and gather information from them or request that they collect information on behalf of the researcher.

    4. Quota sampling is a technique for sample collection in which the researcher is free to pick a sample depending on their stratification. The key property of this technique is that two individuals cannot exist in two distinct states. For instance, when a shoe maker wants to ascertain millennials’ perceptions of the brand in relation to other factors such as comfort, cost, and so on. It recruits solely female millennials for this study, since the purpose is to get input on women’s shoes.