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  • Ishwinder Singh

    October 29, 2021 at 9:18 pm

    A minimalist definition of the word theory is “a system of ideas formulated with the intention to explain a certain phenomenon” it can also be defined as a set of principles in which practice is based on (Oxford dictionary 2018).

    In Marxist theory, there are two concepts, the base and superstructure. The base which makes up the forces and relations of production ie Employer – employee work condition, the technical division of labour and property relations) where people enter to produce the necessities and amenities of life.

    The Superstructure, determines society’s other relationships and ideas to comprise it superstructure, including its culture, institutions, political power structure, roles, rituals and states.

    As this theory was first formulated by Karl Marx, it has invited other scholars, thinkers, academician to apply, revise and critique the theory. As Max Weber, sociologist said ‘he preferred a form of structuralism over a base and superstructure model of society. Antonio Gramsci, philosopher divided Marx’s superstructure into two elements: Political Society and civil society.

    The role of qualitative and quantitative research, these two models of research bring about different data to the table. Qualitative research is the process of collecting, analysing and interpreting non numerical data – text, video, photographs or audio recordings.

    Quantitative research on the other hand involves the process of objectively collecting and analysing numerical data to describe, predict or control variable interest. The goals of quantitative research are to test casual relationships between variables, make predictions, and generalize results to wide populations.